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Understanding and Using English Grammar.  Betty Azar

Third Edition; with Answer Key

3rd. ed. - Longman, 2003 - 566 с.

Understanding and Using English Grammar is a developmental skills text for intermediate to advanced students of English as a second or foreign language. While focusing on grammar, it promotes the development of all language skills in a variety of ways. It functions principally as a classroom teaching text but also serves as a comprehensive reference text for students and teachers

The eclectic approach and abundant variety of exercise material remain the same as in the earlier editions, but each new edition incorporates new ways and means. In particular:
The communicative aspects of Understanding and Using English Grammar are more fully developed and explicit in the third edition. There are numerous "real communication" opportunities for the teacher to exploit. The text often uses the students' own life experiences as context and regularly introduces topics of interest to stimulate the free expression of ideas in structured as well as open discussions. The text supports the view of many experienced teachers that grammar-based and communicative approaches are not mutually exclusive, but rather mutually supportive and can co-exist in the same language program, even in the same class, even in the same lesson.

Similarly, the interactive aspects of the text receive greater emphasis in the third edition. Many of the exercises formerly designated "oral" or "oral (books closed)" are now reformatted to be used for pair work or group work, in addition to still being viable as class work led by a teacher. This edition encourages interactivity but leaves it open for the users to decide what degree of interactivity best suits their needs.

There is now an even wider variety of exercise types. This new edition has added more free-response exercises and open-ended communicative tasks, while still providing ample controlled-response exercises to aid initial understanding of the form, meaning, and usage of the target structures. It also includes more writing topics, more speaking activities, expanded error-analysis exercises, and additional extended-context exercises.

Long chapters have been broken into shorter units, and certain grammar units have been reorganized.

 

 

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Все книги этой серии / The Azar Grammar Series

Basic English grammar. Betty Azar
Fundamentals of English Grammar. Betty Azar
Understanding and Using English Grammar. Betty Azar


 

                                                 CONTENTS

     PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION................................................................................................ xiii

     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................................. xv

     Chapter 1    OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES

1-1    THE SIMPLETENSES.............................................................................................................................. 2

1-2   THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES................................................................................................................. 3

1-3   THE PERFECTTENSES   ........................................................................................................................ 4

1-4   THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES............................................................................................... 5

1-5    SUMMARY CHART OFVERBTENSES................................................................................................. 6

1-6   SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMS............................................................................................... 10

     Chapter 2   PRESENT AND PAST, SIMPLE AND PROGRESSIVE

2-1     SIMPLE PRESENT............................................................................................................................... 13

2-2    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE.................................................................................................................... 13

2-3    STATIVE VERBS................................................................................................................................... 15

2-4    AM/IS/ARE BEING + ADJECTIVE....................................................................................................... 17

2-5    REGULARAND IRREGULAR VERBS............................................................................................... 19

2-6    REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF -ED ENDINGS............................................................... 20

2-7    IRREGULAR VERBS: AN ALPHABETICAL LIST   ........................................................................ 22

2-8    TROUBLESOME VERBS: RAISE/RISE, SET/SIT, LAY/LIE................................................................. 26

2-9    SIMPLE PAST....................................................................................................................................... 27

2-10  PAST PROGRESSIVE........................................................................................................................... 28

2-11  USING PROGRESSIVE VERBS WITH ALWAYSTO COMPLAIN........................ ,........................... 30

2-12 USING EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE WITH PROGRESSIVE VERBS................................................. 31

     Chapter 3   PERFECT AND PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES

3-1    PRESENT PERFECT............................................................................................................................. 36

3-2    PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE.................................................................................................. 42

3-3    PAST PERFECT.................................................................................................................................... 45

3-4    PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE......................................................................................................... 47

     Chapter 4   FUTURE TIME

4-1    SIMPLE FUTURE: WILL AND BE GOING TO.................................................................................. 51

4-2    WILL vs. BE GOING TO........................................................................................................................ 52

4-3    EXPRESSING THE FUTURE INTIME CLAUSES............................................................................. 55

4-4    USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE SIMPLE PRESENT

TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME............................................................................................................ 57

4-5    FUTURE PROGRESSrVE..................................................................................................................... 60

4-6    FUTURE PERFECT.............................................................................................................................. 62

4-7    FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE................................................................................................... 62

     Chapter 5   ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME AND REVIEW OF VERB TENSES

5-1     ADVERB CLAUSES OFTIME: FORM.............................................................................................. 70

5-2    USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOWTIME RELATIONSHIPS................................................... 72

     Chapter 6   SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

6-1   FINAL -S/-ES: USE, PRONUNCIATION, AND SPELLING   ........................................................... 84

6-2   BASIC SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT.............................................................................................. 88

6-3   SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY.................................... 89

6-4   SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING THERE + BE..................................................................... 90

6-5   SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: SOME IRREGULARITIES........................................................... 92

     Chapter 7   NOUNS

7-1    REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS   ....................................................................... 100

7-2    POSSESSIVE NOUNS......................................................................................................................... 103

7-3    USING NOUNS AS MODIFIERS...................................................................................................... 105

7-4    COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS............................................................................................... 107

7-5    NONCOUNT NOUNS........................................................................................................................ 108

7-6    SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS....................................................................................... 108

7-7    BASIC ARTICLE USAGE................................................................................................................... 112

7-8    GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE.......................................................................... 115

7-9    EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY........................................................................................................ 119

7-10 USING A FEW AND FEW; A LITTLE AND LITTLE......................................................................... 123

7-11   USING OF IN EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY.............................................................................. 125

7-12 ALL (OF) AND BOTH (OF)   .............................................................................................................. 126

7-13  SINGULAR EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE, EACH, EVERY............................................... 128

     Chapter 8   PRONOUNS

8-1     PERSONAL PRONOUNS.................................................................................................................. 132

8-2     PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH GENERIC NOUNS AND

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS................................................................................................................ 134

8-3     PERSONAL PRONOUNS: AGREEMENT WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS................................... 136

8-4     REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.................................................................................................................. 138

8-5     USING YOU, ONE, AND THEY AS IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS................................................. 140

8-6    FORMS OF OTHER............................................................................................................................ 142

8-7    COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH OTHER.............................................    ..................................... 145

     Chapter 9   MODALS, PART 1

9-1    INTRODUCTION   ............................................................................................................................ 151

9-2    POLITE QUESTIONS WITH /ASTHE SUBJECT............................................................................ 152

9-3    POLITE QUESTIONS WITH YOU ASTHE SUBJECT.................................................................... 152

9-4    POLITE REQUESTS WITH WOULD YOU MIND............................................................................ 153

9-5    EXPRESSING NECESSITY: MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO   ................................................... 157

9-6    LACK OF NECESSITY AND PROHIBITION: HAVE TO AND MUST

INTHE NEGATIVE  .......................................................................................................................... 158

9-7    ADVISABILITY: SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAD BETTER................................................................ 160

9-8    THE PAST FORM OF SHOULD....................................................................................................... 163

9-9    EXPECTATIONS: BE SUPPOSED TO.............................................................................................. 166

9-10 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET'S, WHY DON'T, SHALL I/WE........................................................ 169

9-11  MAKING SUGGESTIONS: COULDvs. SHOULD........................................................     .............. 171

     Chapter 10   MODALS, PART 2

10-1    DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENTTIME............................................................................ 176

10-2    DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENTTIME NEGATIVE....................................................... 178

10-3    DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PASTTIME................................................................................... 181

10-4    DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: FUTURE TIME............................................................................ 184

10-5    PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS........................................................................................ 188

10-6    ABILITY: C4NAND COULD........................................................................................................ 193

10-7    USING WOULDTO EXPRESS A REPEATED ACTION IN THE PAST................................... 195

10-8    EXPRESSING PREFERENCE: WOULD RATHER....................................................................... 197

10-9    COMBINING MODALS WITH PHRASAL MODALS.............................................................. 198

10-10  SUMMARY CHART OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS...................................... 199

     Chapter 11   THE PASSIVE

11-1    FORMFNGTHE PASSIVE   ......................................................................................................... 208

11-2    USFNG THE PASSIVE.................................................................................................................. 211

11-3    INDIRECT OBJECTS USED AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS.............................................................. 213

11-4    THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS AND PHRASAL MODALS........................................... 218

11-5    STATIVE PASSIVE........................................................................................................................ 225

11-6    COMMON STATIVE PASSrVE VERBS + PREPOSITIONS...................................................... 228

11-7    THE PASSIVE WITH GET............................................................................................................ 232

11-8    PARTICIPIAL ADJECTTVES...................................................................................................... 235

     Chapter 12   NOUN CLAUSES

12-1     INTRODUCTION   ....................................................................................................................... 239

12-2   NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD................................................. 240

12-3   NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF......................................................... 245

12-4   QUESTIONWORDS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES   .............................................................. 247

12-5   NOUN CLAUSES BEGPNNING WITH THAT............................................................................ 248

12-6   QUOTED SPEECH......................................................................................................................... 251

12-7   REPORTED SPEECH: VERB FORMS IN NOUN CLAUSES..................................................... 254

12-8   USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES.................................................................... 263

12-9   USFNG -EVER WORDS................................................................................................................. 265

     Chapter 13   ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

13-1    INTRODUCTION   ....................................................................................................................... 267

13-2    ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT   ............................................. 268

13-3    ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB............................ 268

13-4    ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF

A PREPOSITION  . . .................................................................................................................... 269

13-5    USUAL PATTERNS OF ADJECITVE CLAUSES....................................................................... 270

13-6    USFNG WHOSE............................................................................................................................. 274

13-7    USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES................................................................................ 277

13-8    USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.................................................................................. 277

13-9    USFNG ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS.................................................... 280

13-10 PUNCTUATING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.................................................................................... 281

13-11  USFNG EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY FN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES..................................... 285

13-12 USFNG NOUN + OFWHICH......................................................................................................... 286

13-13 USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE............................................................... 286

13-14 REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE

PHRASES: INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 290

13-15 CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE.................................. 290

     Chapter 14   GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 1

14-1     GERUNDS: INTRODUCTION   ................................................................................................. 297

14-2    USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS.................................................... 298

14-3    COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS........................ 299

14-4    COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS....................................................................... 302

14-5    GO + GERUND............................................................................................................................. 303

14-6    SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY -ING....................................................................... 304

14-7    COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES................................................................... 307

14-8    COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES OR GERUNDS......................... 311

14-9    REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS.................................................... 318

14-10 REFERENCE LIST OFVERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES.................................................. 319

14-11  IT + INFINITIVE; GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES AS SUBJECTS.......................................... 323

      Chapter 15   GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 2

15-1     ESTFINITrVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TO............................................................................... 326

15-2    ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES............................................................................ 328

15-3    USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH.................................................................... 330

15-4    PASSIVE AND PAST FORMS OF INFINnTVES AND GERUNDS.......................................... 331

15-5    USING GERUNDS OR PASSIVE INFINnTVES FOLLOWING NEED...................................... 333

15-6    USING A POSSESSrVETO MODIFY A GERUND..................................................................... 334

15-7    USING VERBS OF PERCEPTION................................................................................................ 336

15-8    USING THE SIMPLE FORM AFTER LET AND HELP............................................................. 338

15-9    USING CAUSATIVE VERBS: MAKE, HAVE, GET...................................................................... 339

     Chapter 16   COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

16-1     PARALLEL STRUCTURE   ........................................................................................................ 348

16-2    USING PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS: BOTH... AND; NOT ONLY...

BUT ALSO; EITHER ... OR; NEITHER ... NOR............................................................................ 353

16-3    COMBINING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WITH COORDINATING

CONJUNCTIONS......................................................................................................................... 355

     Chapter 17   ADVERB CLAUSES

17-1     INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................... 359

17-2    USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT.............................................. 362

17-3    EXPRESSING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT):

USING EVENTHOUGH................................................................................................................ 363

17-4    SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREAS..................................................... 366

17-5    EXPRESSING CONDITIONS ПчГ ADVERB CLAUSES: /F-CLAUSES................................... 367

17-6    ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT

AND EVEN IF................................................................................................................................ 368

17-7    ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE AND

INTHE EVENTTHAT...................................................................................................................... 369

17-8    ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS.......................................................... 370

17-9    ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF.......................................................... 371

     Chapter 18   REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES

18-1     INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................... 374

18-2    CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES............................ 375

18-3    EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF "DURING THE SAME TIME"

IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES   .............................................................................. 376

18-4    EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN MODIFYING

ADVERBIAL PHRASES............................................................................................................... 376

18-5    USING UPON + -ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES............................................ 380

     Chapter 19   CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, AND CONDITION

19-1     USING BECAUSE OF AND DUETO........................................................................................... 385

19-2    USING TRANSITIONS TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT:

THEREFORE AND CONSEQUENTLY........................................................................................ 387

19-3    SUMMARY OF PATTERNS AND PUNCTUATION............................................................... 389

19-4    OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT:

SUCH... THAT AND SO... THAT................................................................................................ 391

19-5    EXPRESSING PURPOSE: USING SO THAT............................................................................... 393

19-6    SHOWING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT)................................................................. 395

19-7    SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST................................................................................................ 398

19-8    EXPRESSING CONDITIONS: USING OTHERWISE AND OR (ELSE)..................................... 401

19-9    SUMMARY OF CONNECTIVES: CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST,

CONDITION   .............................................................................................................................. 402

     Chapter 20   CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES

20-1     OVERVIEW OF BASIC VERB FORMS USED IN

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES..................................................................................................... 413

20-2    TRUE INTHE PRESENT OR FUTURE........................................................................................ 414

20-3    UNTRUE (CONTRARYTO FACT) INTHE PRESENT OR FUTURE...................................... 415

20-4    UNTRUE (CONTRARYTO FACT) INTHE PAST..................................................................... 418

20-5    USING PROGRESSIVE VERB FORMS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.............................. 423

20-6    USING "MIXED TIME" IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES...................................................... 424

20-7    OMITTING IF................................................................................................................................ 424

20-8    IMPLIED CONDITIONS............................................................................................................... 425

20-9    USING AS IF/AS THOUGH............................................................................................................ 430

20-10 VERB FORMS FOLLOWING WISH.............................................................................................. 432

20-11  USING WOULDTO MAKE WISHES ABOUTTHE FUTURE................................................... 434

   Appendix   SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR UNITS

Unit A:   BASIC GRAMMAR TERMINOLOGY

A-l      SUBJECTS, VERBS, AND OBJECTS............................................................................................. Al

A-2      PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.................................................................. A3

A-3     ADJECTIVES.................................................................................................................................... A4

A-4     ADVERBS......................................................................................................................................... A4

A-5      THE VERB BE.................................................................................................................................. A6

A-6     LINKING VERBS............................................................................................................................. A6

Unit B:    QUESTIONS

B-l      FORMS OFYES/NO AND INFORMATION QUESTIONS.......................................................... A8

B-2      QUESTION WORDS....................................................................................................................... A9

B-3      SHORTENED YES/NO QUESTIONS........................................................................................... AI2

B-4      NEGATIVE QUESTIONS............................................................................................................. A13

B-5     TAG QUESTIONS.......................................................................................................................... A15

Unit C:   CONTRACTIONS...................................................................................................................................... A17

UnitD:   NEGATIVES

D-l     USING NOT AND OTHER NEGATIVE WORDS........................................................................ Al8

D-2     AVOIDING DOUBLE NEGATIVES............................................................................................. A20

D-3     BEGINNING A SENTENCE WITH A NEGATIVE WORD....................................................... A20

Unit E:    PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS

E          PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH ADJECTIVES AND VERBS.................................. A21

Unit F:    CONNECTIVES TO GIVE EXAMPLES AND TO CONTINUE AN IDEA

F-l      CONNECTrVESTO GIVE EXAMPLES..............................................................    ...................... A24

F-2      CONNECTIVESTO CONTINUETHE SAME IDEA................................................................... A26

Unit G:   VERB FORM REVIEW EXERCISES....................................................................................................... A26

     ANSWER KEY.............................................................................. ...................................... ANSWER KEY I

     INDEX....................................................................................... ............................................. INDEX 1

 


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